L2 phonetics research | conference proceedings

Conference presentations
Tsukada, K., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., Sung, H. and Flege, J. (2003). The perception and
production of English /ɛ/ and /æ/ by Korean Children and Adults living in North America. In M. Solé, D.
Recasens & J. Romero (Eds)
Proceedings of 15th International Congress of Phonetics Sciences, Barcelona:
Casual Productions, Pp. 1589-1592.

Flege, J. (2002). No perfect bilinguals. In A. James and . Leather (Eds) New Sounds 2000: Proceedings of the
Fourth International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech
. University of Klagenfurt, Pp.
132-141.

Baker, W., Trofimovich, P., Mack, M. and Flege, J. (2002). The effect of perceived phonetic similarity on non-
native sound learning by children and adults. In B. Skarabela, S. Fish and A. Do (Eds)
Proceedings of the 26th

Birdsong, D. & Flege, J. (2001). Regular-irregular dissociations in the acquisition of English as a second
language. In
BUCLD 25: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Boston University Conference on Language
Development
, Boston, MA: Cascadilla Press, Pp. 123-132.
Guion, S., Flege, J., & Loftin, J. (1999). The effect of L1 use on foreign accent ratings in Quicha-Spanish
bilinguals. In J. Ohala, Y. Hasegawa, M. Ohala, D. Granveille and A. Bailey (Eds)
Proceedings of the XIVth
International Congress of Phonetics Sciences
, Berkeley, CA: Department of Linguistics, UCLA, Pp. 1471-1474.

Flege, J., Yeni-Komshian, G. & Liu, S. (1999). Age Constraints on learning L2 phonology and morphosyntax.
Proceedings of the the Joint Meeting of the 16th International Congress on Acoustics and the 137th Meeting of
the Acoustical Society of America
, Berlin, 15-19 March, 1999.  

Piske, T., Flege, J., MacKay, I., & Meador, D. (1999). Non-natives’ production of vowels in conversational
speech.
Proceedings of the the Joint Meeting of the 16th International Congress on Acoustics and the 137th
Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America
, Berlin, 15-19 March, 1999.

Flege, J. (1998). The role of subject and phonetic variables in L2 speech acquisition. In M. Gruber, D. Higgins,
K. Olsen and T. Wysocki (Eds)
Papers from the 34th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Volume
II, The Panels
.  Chicago:  Chicago Linguistic Society. Pp. 213-232.

Flege, J. (1998). Second-language Learning: The role of subject and phonetic variables. In Proceedingsof the
ESCA Workshop on Speech Technology in Language Learning
(Marholmen, Sweden, May 24-27, 1998). Pp. 1-
9.

Flege, J., Guion, S., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Downs-Pruitt, J. (1998). Categorial discrimination of English and
Japanese vowels and consonants by native Japanese and English subjects. In  P. Kuhl and L. Crum (Eds)

Proceedings of the 16th International Congress on Acoustics and the 135th Meeting of the Acoustical  Society
of America, Volume IV,
 New York: Acoustical Society of America, Pp. 2973-2974.

Nozawa, T., & Flege, J. (1998). Perception of English vowels by Japanese speakers residing in the United
States, In:
Psychology and Learning of Language, Tokyo: Kinseido (Japan Society of Speech), Pp. 65-77.

Flege, J. (1997). The role of category formation in second-language speech learning. In J. Leather and A.
James (Eds)
New Sounds 97, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-
Language Speech,
Klagenfurt, Austria: University of Klagenfurt, Pp. 79-89.

Hillenbrand, J.,and Flege, J. (1992). Application of acoustic techniques to the assessment of speech disorders.
In Assessment of Speech and Voice Production: Research and Clinical Applications. NIDCD Monograph.
National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Pp. 53-62.

Bohn, O., Flege, J., Dagenais, P., & Fletcher, S. (1991). Effects of bite-block and loud speech on tongue
heights in the production of German vowels. In
Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Phonetic
Sciences, Volume 3
, Pp. 70-73.

Flege, J. (1984). The detection of foreign accentedness. In A. Cohen and M. van den Broecke (Eds)
Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Dordrecht: Foris, Pp. 677-681.

Flege, J. (1982). English speakers learn to suppress final stop devoicing, In R. Chametzky, R. Hirzel and K.
Tuite (Eds)
Papers from the 18th Regional Meeting, Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, Pp. 111-122.

Flege, J., Brown, W., Jr., & White, K. (1982). Voicing control in child speech, In T. Kastor-Bennett (Ed) Mid-
America Linguistics Conference Proceedings,
Wichita State University,  Dept. of English, Pp. 11-31.

Flege, J. & Hammond, R. (1981). Speakers' awareness of some non-segmental phonetic aspects of foreign
accent. In M. Henderson (Ed)
1980 Mid-America Linguistics Conference Papers, University of Kansas, Dept. of
English, Pp. 145-163.

Flege, J. (1980). Temporal correlates of [voice] in Arabic-accented English. In J. Wolfand D. Klatt (Eds) Speech
Communication Papers Presented at the 97th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America
, New York,
Acoustical Society of America, Pp. 171-175.
Flege, J. (2012). The role of input in second language speech learning. VIth International Conference on
Native and Non-native accent of English. Lodz, Poland  6-8 December 2012.

Note: This is a slightly edited version of the keynote I  presented at New Sounds 2010. The aim of the talk was
to consider four hypotheses regarding age-related effects on L2 speech acquisition. A lot of territory is covered
here. However, I call your attention especially to the discussion of why the Johnson & Newport (1987) study
does not provide convincing evidence in support of a "maturational" account of age effect on L2 learning. I've
replotted some data from our JML article (Flege et al. 1999). The study tested the critical period hypothesis by
examining 240 Korean immigrants to the US. Several factors other than the age of L2 learning, including
education in the US and amount of English use, might well account for most of the variance in the two outcome
variables (foreign accent ratings, morphosyntax scores). Interestingly, the cross-over from Korean-dominant to
English dominant occured at an AOA of 12 years.
Flege, J. (2005). The origins and development of the Speech Learning Model. Keynote lecture at the 1st
Acoustical Society of America Workshop on L2 Speech Learning, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, CA
(April 14-15, 2005). [conference presentation]
Flege, J. (2010). "Age" effects on second language acquisition. New Sounds 2010, 1-3, 2010, Poznań, Poland.

Note: This is a slightly edited version of the keynote I  presented at New Sounds 2010. The aim of the talk was
to consider four hypotheses regarding age-related effects on L2 speech acquisiton. A lot of territory is covered
here. However, I call your attention especially to the discussion of why the Johnson & Newport (1987) study
does not provide convincing evidence in support of a "maturational" account of age effect on L2 learning. I've
replotted some data from our JML article (Flege et al. 1999). The study tested the critical period hypothesis by
examining 240 Korean immigrants to the US. Several factors other than the age of L2 learning, including
education in the US and amount of English use, might well account for most of the variance in the two outcome
variables (foreign accent ratings, morphosyntax scores). Interestingly, the cross-over from Korean-domiant to
English dominant occured at an AOA of 12 years.
Aoyama, K., Flege, J., Guion, S., Akahane-Yamada, R. and Yamada, T. (2003). Foreign accent in English
words produced by Japanese children and adults. In M. Solé, D. Recasens and J. Romero (Eds)
Proceedings of
15th International Congress of Phonetics Sciences
, Barcelona: Casual Productions, Pp. 3201-3204.

Imai, S., Flege, J. and Walley, A. (2003). Spoken word recognition of accented
and unaccented speech: Lexical factors affecting native and nonnative listeners. In M. Solé, D. Recasens and
J. Romero (Eds)
Proceedings of 15th International Congress of Phonetics Sciences, Barcelona: Casual
Productions, Pp. 845-848.
McAllister, R., Flege, J., & Piske, T. (1999) The acquisition of Swedish Long vs. Short contrasts by nativve
speakers of English, Spanish and Estonioan. In J. Ohala, Y. Hasegawa, M. Ohala, D. Granveille and A. Bailey
(Eds)
Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetics Sciences, Berkeley, CA: Department of
Linguistics, UCLA, Pp. 751-754.

Piske, T. & MacKay, I. (1999). Age and L1 Use effects on degree of foreign accent in English. In J. Ohala, Y.
Hasegawa, M. Ohala, D. Granveille and A. Bailey (Eds)
Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of
Phonetics Sciences
, Berkeley, CA: Department of Linguistics, UCLA, Pp. 1433-1436.
Flege, J.. (1999). The relation between L2 production and perception. In J. Ohala, Y. Hasegawa, M. Ohala, D.
Granveille and A. Bailey (Eds)
Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetics Sciences
(Berkeley, CA: Department of Linguistics, Univ. of California at Berkeley), Pp. 1273-1276.

Abstract: It has been claimed that a correlation does not exist between how accurately experienced late
learners produce and perceive phonetic segments in a second language (L2). According to one theory,
learners of an L2 are no longer able to align segmental production and perception after the passing of a critical
period. This contribution reviews studies that have examined L2 production and perception. All of the studies
yielded significant, albeit modest,correlations. Possible explanations for why stronger correlations have not
been observed are presented.

Comment: The article lays out the SLM hypothesis regarding the relation between segmental production and
perception in an L2, namely: "The accuracy with which L2 segments are perceived limits how accurately they
will typically be produced (p. 1273). The article notes that "not all aspects of perceptual learning may be
incorporated into production. That is, production and perception may not be brought into perfect alignment, as
is the case in LI speech acquisition. Thus, the SLM predicts that modest correlations will exist between L2
segmental production and perception for highly experienced speakers of an L2."

For further discussion of the relation between production and perception, including analysis techniques, see
Discussion Topic 4.
Flege, J.E. (2016). The role of phonetic category formation in second language speech acquisition. Eight
International Conference on Second Language Speech, 10-12 June, 2016, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Abstract: In 1995, after 15 years of preliminary work, I formally presented the Speech Learning Mode. A key
aspect of this L2 speech acquisition model was the hypothesis is that learners of any age, even late learners,
retain the capacities used in successful L1 speech learning, including the capacity to create new phonetic
categories for certain L2 sounds. In the first part of this talk I describe the both general and specific properties
of phonetic categories, referred to as "containers" in which learners store and structure information in long term
memory pertinent to classes of speech sounds. Then I present studies providing evidence for the formation of
phonetic categories for English /p/, by native speakers of Spanish; for English
/ɝ/, by native speakers of Italian;
and for English /r/, by native speakers of Japanese. I conclude the talk with a brief summary, indicating what it is
that we still don't know about L2 category formation, and identifying obstacles to complete understanding of this
crucial aspect of L2 speech learning.
Flege, J.E. (2017). Imparare la pronuncia di una lingua straniera: Possiamo farlo anche noi anziani? Circolo
Culturale «Enrico Pocci»  Via G. Verdi, 7  Tuscania (VT)
Flege, J.E. (2017) The cross-language acquisition of stops differing in VOT: Historical
overview and key findings. Phonetic Teaching and Learning Conference 2017,
University College London. 9-12 August 2017.

Part 1: Historical overview of VOT

A great deal of L2 research has focused on the Voice onset time (VOT) dimension in
word-initial stop consonants. Interest in the VOT dimension arises from the fact that
languages differ in terms of how VOT is used to distinguish phonemes (e.g., /b/ vs /p/)
and to the fact that the VOT dimension provides a useful bridge between production
and perception. Other considerations are that it is easy to measure VOT and to create
perceptual continua consisting of stimuli that differ in VOT. Alas, it is also possible to
make errors when using VOT to evaluate segmental production and perception.

This talk reviews the VOT dimension from the perspective of cross language
differences, inter-lingual identification, phonetic theory, L1 acquisition and L2 learning.
A proposal deriving from the L1 acquisition research is that learners of an L2 may need
as much as 10 years of native speaker input to produce and perceive L2 stops
accurately. The discussion of phonetic organization focuses on the nature of phonetic
categories and the language-specific realization rules used to motorically output the
phonetic categories in speech production. Also included is a consideration of individual
differences and a review of studies examining the capacity of adults to learn to use
VOT differently when learning an L2.
Part 2: The cross-language acquisition of stops differing in VOT: Key findings

This review of the literature led to the following conclusions regarding the production
and perception of word-initial consonants by native speakers of Romance languages
who learn English as an L2

1. Learning to perceive and produce the VOT dimension depends more importantly on
the phonetic input received than on age of L2 learning;

2.Learners of all ages retain the speech-learning capacities available to children who
learn an L1, including the capacity to make effective of use of input and establish new
phonetic categories and phonetic realization rules;

3. For native speakers of Romance languages learning of English /b d g/ and /p t k/
proceed differently due to differing patterns of cross-language differences;

4. Native speakers of Romance languages do not establish new phonetic categories for
English /b d g/. Instead, they restructure their L1 phonetic categories for use in two
languages on the basis of the input they have received;

5. On the other hand, native speakers of Romance languages who receive adequate
phonetic input do establish new phonetic categories for English /p t k/;

6. Doing so does not cause them to “lose” their L1 phonetic categories for /p t k/. As a
result, they have three categories for stops consonants, not just two as is the case for
monolingual speakers of English and Romance languages;

7.Those who begin to produce L1 /b d g/ with short-lag VOT values as the result of
long-term exposure to such stops in the L2 slightly increase VOT in L1 /p t k/ in order to
avoid producing L1 /b d g/ and /p t k/ with the same short-lag VOT values