Conference before 2011
Tsukada, K., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., Sung, H. and Flege, J. (2003). The perception and
production of English /ɛ/ and /æ/ by Korean Children and Adults living in North America. In M. Solé, D.
Recasens & J. Romero (Eds) Proceedings of 15th International Congress of Phonetics Sciences,
Barcelona: Casual Productions, Pp. 1589-1592.
Flege, J. (2002). No perfect bilinguals. In A. James and . Leather (Eds) New Sounds 2000: Proceedings of
the Fourth International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech. University of
Klagenfurt, Pp. 132-141.
Baker, W., Trofimovich, P., Mack, M. and Flege, J. (2002). The effect of perceived phonetic similarity on
non-native sound learning by children and adults. In B. Skarabela, S. Fish and A. Do (Eds) Proceedings of
Birdsong, D. & Flege, J. (2001). Regular-irregular dissociations in the acquisition of English as a second
language. In BUCLD 25: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Boston University Conference on Language
Development, Boston, MA: Cascadilla Press, Pp. 123-132.
Flege, J., Yeni-Komshian, G. & Liu, S. (1999). Age Constraints on learning L2 phonology and morphosyntax.
Proceedings of the the Joint Meeting of the 16th International Congress on Acoustics and the 137th Meeting
of the Acoustical Society of America, Berlin, 15-19 March, 1999.
Piske, T., Flege, J., MacKay, I., & Meador, D. (1999). Non-natives’ production of vowels in conversational
speech. Proceedings of the the Joint Meeting of the 16th International Congress on Acoustics and the 137th
Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Berlin, 15-19 March, 1999.
Flege, J. (1998). The role of subject and phonetic variables in L2 speech acquisition. In M. Gruber, D.
Higgins, K. Olsen and T. Wysocki (Eds) Papers from the 34th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic
Society, Volume II, The Panels. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Pp. 213-232.
Flege, J. (1998). Second-language Learning: The role of subject and phonetic variables. In Proceedingsof
Flege, J., Guion, S., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Downs-Pruitt, J. (1998). Categorial discrimination of English
and Japanese vowels and consonants by native Japanese and English subjects. In P. Kuhl and L. Crum
(Eds) Proceedings of the 16th International Congress on Acoustics and the 135th Meeting of the Acoustical
Society of America, Volume IV, New York: Acoustical Society of America, Pp. 2973-2974.
Nozawa, T., & Flege, J. (1998). Perception of English vowels by Japanese speakers residing in the United
States, In: Psychology and Learning of Language, Tokyo: Kinseido (Japan Society of Speech), Pp. 65-77.
Flege, J. (1997). The role of category formation in second-language speech learning. In J. Leather and A.
James (Eds) New Sounds 97, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Acquisition of
Second-Language Speech, Klagenfurt, Austria: University of Klagenfurt, Pp. 79-89.
Hillenbrand, J.,and Flege, J. (1992). Application of acoustic techniques to the assessment of speech
disorders. In Assessment of Speech and Voice Production: Research and Clinical Applications. NIDCD
Monograph. National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Pp. 53-62.
Bohn, O., Flege, J., Dagenais, P., & Fletcher, S. (1991). Effects of bite-block and loud speech on tongue
heights in the production of German vowels. In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Phonetic
Sciences, Volume 3, Pp. 70-73.
Flege, J. (1984). The detection of foreign accentedness. In A. Cohen and M. van den Broecke (Eds)
Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Dordrecht: Foris, Pp. 677-681.
Flege, J. (1982). English speakers learn to suppress final stop devoicing, In R. Chametzky, R. Hirzel and K.
Tuite (Eds) Papers from the 18th Regional Meeting, Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, Pp. 111-122.
America Linguistics Conference Proceedings, Wichita State University, Dept. of English, Pp. 11-31.
Flege, J. & Hammond, R. (1981). Speakers' awareness of some non-segmental phonetic aspects of foreign
accent. In M. Henderson (Ed) 1980 Mid-America Linguistics Conference Papers, University of Kansas, Dept.
of English, Pp. 145-163.
Flege, J. (1980). Temporal correlates of [voice] in Arabic-accented English. In J. Wolfand D. Klatt (Eds)
Speech Communication Papers Presented at the 97th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, New
York, Acoustical Society of America, Pp. 171-175.
Flege, J. (2005). The origins and development of the Speech Learning Model. Keynote lecture at the
1st Acoustical Society of America Workshop on L2 Speech Learning, Simon Fraser University,
Vancouver, CA (April 14-15, 2005). [conference presentation]
Flege, J. (2010). "Age" effects on second language acquisition. New Sounds 2010, 1-
3, 2010, Poznań, Poland.
Aoyama, K., Flege, J., Guion, S., Akahane-Yamada, R. and Yamada, T. (2003). Foreign accent in
English words produced by Japanese children and adults. In M. Solé, D. Recasens and J. Romero (Eds)
Proceedings of 15th International Congress of Phonetics Sciences, Barcelona: Casual Productions, Pp.
Imai, S., Flege, J. and Walley, A. (2003). Spoken word recognition of accented
Barcelona: Casual Productions, Pp. 845-848.
McAllister, R., Flege, J., & Piske, T. (1999). The acquisition of Swedish long vs. short vowel contrasts by
native speakers of English, Spanish and Estonioan. In J. Ohala, Y. Hasegawa, M. Ohala, D. Granveille
and A. Bailey (Eds) Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetics Sciences, Berkeley,
CA: Department of Linguistics, UCLA, Pp. 751-754.
Piske, T. & MacKay, I. (1999). Age and L1 Use effects on degree of foreign accent in English. In J. Ohala,
Y. Hasegawa, M. Ohala, D. Granveille and A. Bailey (Eds) Proceedings of the XIVth International
Congress of Phonetics Sciences, Berkeley, CA: Department of Linguistics, UCLA, Pp. 1433-1436.
Flege, J.E. (1999). The relation between L2 production and perception. In J. Ohala et al. (Eds), Proceedings
of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetics Sciences (Berkeley, CA: Department of Linguistics, Univ. of
California at Berkeley), Pp. 1273-1276.
Abstract: It has been claimed that a correlation does not exist between how accurately experienced late
learners produce and perceive phonetic segments in a second language (L2). According to one theory,
learners of an L2 are no longer able to align segmental production and perception after the passing of a
critical period. This contribution reviews studies that have examined L2 production and perception. All of the
studies yielded significant, albeit modest,correlations. Possible explanations for why stronger correlations
have not been observed are presented.
Comment: The article lays out the SLM hypothesis regarding the relation between segmental production
and perception in an L2, namely: "The accuracy with which L2 segments are perceived limits how accurately
they will typically be produced (p. 1273). The article notes that "not all aspects of perceptual learning may be
incorporated into production. That is, production and perception may not be brought into perfect alignment,
as is the case in LI speech acquisition. Thus, the SLM predicts that modest correlations will exist between L2
segmental production and perception for highly experienced speakers of an L2."
For further discussion of the relation between production and perception, including analysis techniques, see
Discussion Topic 4.
Summary. This talk presents the grammaticality judgment test (GJT) results obtained
by Flege et al. (1999) for 240 Korean immigrants in greater detail than was possible in
the original JML article.
The GJT scores obtained for “Early” (AOA 1-8.5 years), “Mid” (9.5-14.5) and “Late”
(15.5-22-5) learners were all significantly lower scores than the NE comparison group
and all three Korean groups differed significantly from one another. The data pattern
was clear but interpretation of the results was difficult because the selection variable,
AOA, was confounded with other variables (frequency of L1 and L2 use, LOR, and
years of education in the US) that might reasonably be expected to have influenced the
To “untangle” variables confounded with AOA we computed two GJT subscores. The
Rule-based subscores tested knowledge of regular, productive, and generalizable
rules of the surface morphology of English; the Lexically-based subscores tested the
Koreans’ knowledge of irregular and ungeneralizable aspects of English morphosyntax.
Korean groups having mean AOAs of 13-21 obtained significantly lower Lexically-
based than Rule-based subscores but not the groups having mean AOAs ranging
from 3-11 years.
Matched subgroup analyses compared groups in which AOA was held constant and
either years of US education or language use varied. When years of US education
varied, matched subgroups differed significantly for Rule-based but not Lexically-based
subscores. When language use varied, matched subgroups differed significantly for
the Lexically-based but not Rule-based subscores.
Conclusion: These results effectively “explain away” AOA as the cause for Early vs
Late differences, in at least for the GJT used here. It’s time for SLA researchers to stop
treating variation in L2 input as a nuisance and start designing research to explore the
role of quantity and quality of input on the learning of L2 morphosyntax.
Keywords: morphosyntax, English, Korean, grammaticality judgment test, GJT, ciritcal
period, maturational constaint, GJT, Johson & Newport (1989), age of arrival, AOA,
earlier is better, confounds, input, language use, LOR, length of residence, principal
components analysis, lexically-based, rule-based.
Flege, J., (2010). "Age" effects on Korean adults' learning of English morphosyntax.
Second Anual Second Language Acquisition and Teacher Education (SLATE)
Conference. University of Illinois, 6 May, 2010
Flege, J. (2005). Evidence for plasticity in studies examinng second language speech acquisition. ISCA
Workshop on plasticity in speech perception. University College, London, 15-17 June, 2005.